The International Center for Academic Integrity (ICAI) began at a March 1992 conference hosted by Donald McCabe of Rutgers University to discuss the results of McCabe’s 1990 survey of academic integrity at 31 schools.
The survey had revealed troubling data concerning the extent of cheating and the attitudes surrounding it. At the conference, Jim Lyons of Stanford University led a discussion about what to do next and during the ensuing dialogue, Bill Kibler, then at Texas A&M University, proposed the creation of a “Center for the Study of Academic Integrity.”
Six volunteers – McCabe, Lyons, Kibler, Sally Cole of Stanford University, Gary Pavela of the University of Maryland, and John Margolis of Northwestern University – founded the Center for Academic Integrity (CAI) in October 1992, which was incorporated in the state of Maryland. McCabe became the first President and the other volunteers formed the Board of Directors. Twenty four schools became charter members, committing themselves to promoting and fostering the ideals of academic integrity and sharing and learning from other equally committed institutions.
The first official Center for Academic Integrity Conference was held in March 1993 at the University of Maryland.
The second CAI conference was held in October 1993 at the University of Pennsylvania.
In the spring of 1995, CAI received a two-year, $80,000 grant from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation to support its organizational viability. The grant enabled the appointment of Sally Cole, then CAI president, as the first executive director and increased the board meetings to twice per year. Additionally, CAI’s fourth president, Wanda Mercer of Tarleton State University, appointed a task force to chart the organization’s future.
The task force reaffirmed two essential features of the organization: its focus on academic integrity and the involvement of students, faculty, and administrators as equal partners and participants in dialogue concerning academic integrity. The task force recommended that these unique features be highlighted, perpetuated, and strengthened so that CAI could “model and encourage dialogue about academic integrity and promote coherent principles to which member institutions will contribute and subscribe,” enabling CAI to not only serve members but also to operate as a think-tank and an active agent of social change.
In January 1997, Duke University established the Kenan Ethics Program, a new and exciting initiative that would soon become the Kenan Institute for Ethics under the leadership of Dr. Elizabeth Kiss. Prior to the establishment of the Institute, Executive Director Cole and Dr. Kiss had discussed the overlapping visions and missions of the two organizations and the possibility of CAI moving to North Carolina and affiliating with the Kenan Ethics Program. In the summer of 1997, the Center for Academic Integrity moved from Stanford University to Duke University and began a three-year affiliation with the Kenan Ethics Program. The affiliation was an instant success and proved mutually beneficial in many ways.
After representatives from each school on the pilot project provided recommendations, the Academic Integrity Assessment Guide was released in 2001. Since then over 220 schools have purchased and utilized the Assessment Guide in order to investigate and improve the climate of integrity on their campuses.
In the fall of 1999, CAI received a third grant from the Hewlett Foundation. Sally Cole retired as CAI’s director and Diane (“Daisy”) Waryold of UNC Charlotte succeeded her. Daisy increased the visibility of the organization at Duke and more closely aligned CAI’s goals with KIE’s. She improved the organization’s financial position, extended membership to international schools and high schools, and increased membership to over 300 institutions. She collaborated with Dr. Kiss to secure funding from the John Templeton Foundation to support research into moral development, moral education, and institutional culture and their relationship to academic integrity. The eighteen-month collaboration produced funding for the Templeton Fellows Program to take place in 2004-2006, which supported a group of scholars in academic integrity-related research and placed CAI at the forefront of academic integrity scholarship.
With continued support from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, in 1998 CAI launched a two-year project to identify “fundamental values of academic integrity” and their implications for daily campus life. In October 1999, CAI released its report, “The Fundamental Values of Academic Integrity: Honesty, Trust, Respect, Fairness, Responsibility” to more than 4,000 college and university presidents, with an introduction from then-Duke President Nannerl O. Keohane and endorsed by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the John Templeton Foundation, and 23 higher education organizations.
CAI also received funding from the John Templeton Foundation to develop and test an Academic Integrity Assessment and Action Guide to help schools assess the effectiveness of their academic integrity programs. Twelve institutions participated in the one-year pilot project, using the Guide to critique their academic integrity policies, enforcement procedures, sanctions, and educational programs. The pilot schools evaluated the contents of the Guide and provided feedback on how it might be improved for a broader audience.
After Dr. Waryold’s departure, CAI brought Mindy Dalgarn and later Tim Dodd to direct the Center’s operations. Mindy spearheaded the successful 2004 conference at Kansas State, promoting academic integrity consulting by advisory council members, and launching a student summer internship program. Tim improved CAI’s service to members, increased the size and scope of the international conference, established an “expert registry” of consultants and presenters, and increased CAI’s visibility and prominence in print and broadcast media.
Finally, Tim conducted a thorough business analysis that led CAI and KIE to re-examine the strengths and weaknesses of their partnership. Tim organized a “leadership group” composed of CAI founders and past presidents – Don McCabe, Bill Kibler, Mary Olson, Jim Lancaster, Patrick Drinan, Mark Hyatt, and Katie Meriano – to assess new partnerships allowing CAI to enhance member services in the higher education community.
In order to reflect the Center’s expanding membership and international reach, CAI officially became the International Center for Academic Integrity (ICAI). Since 2010, the organization has expanded to six continents and more than twenty countries. ICAI’s outreach during this period included conferences and academic integrity forums in Mexico, Australia, Singapore, Europe, Egypt,and Morocco.
For the first time in its nearly twenty year history, ICAI organized and held its successful annual conference outside the borders of the United States. Hosted and arranged in part by several local member institutions, the 2011 event, themed “Thinking Globally, Acting Locally”, was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. During 2011, a task force was formed to revisit and revise the decade-old Fundamental Values project to keep with ever-changing societal and educational values.
The 20th Anniversary conference was to be hosted by Princeton University very near to where the first conference was held at Rutgers and bringing full circle the geographical expansion and the growth and importance of ICAI’s work in the field of academic integrity. Unfortunately, Hurricane Sandy caused the cancellation of the event, which was rescheduled for February 2013 in San Antonio.
To better allow for institutional members to gather, share resources, standards, and best practices, ICAI began forming smaller regional consortiums throughout the United States. The first such successful consortium, ICAI SoCal, attracts professionals from nearly two dozen schools in southern California and had its first meeting in March with another in May. Regional consortiums have been established in the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, South West, Southern California, and Canada.
ICAI continued to expand its membership base internationally, adding more representatives from South America, Europe, Africa, and Central Asia. Exciting new partnerships with international educational affiliates such as Integrity Action in Jerusalem, Plagiarism.org in the United Kingdom, and APFEI in Australia helped to increase participation across the globe.ICAI participated in events in Canada, Mexico, Egypt, Greece, England, Russia, and the Czech Republic.
For the first time, ICAI hosted a conference across the Atlantic Ocean – “Academic Integrity and Security: Positive and Proactive Approaches” attracted over fifty delegates from all across Southern and Western Africa. The conference took place in beautiful Cape Town, South Africa in September. Plans are brewing for another trans-Atlantic event in Greece in September 2016!
After a series of discussions, meetings, proposal reviews, and negotiations with many universities and organizations, the CAI advisory council voted unanimously to accept Clemson University’s proposal to relocate the organization to its campus in South Carolina. CAI officially moved to its new home in July.
The move to Clemson required a change from an independent 501(c)(3) nonprofit to a membership organization, operating within the Rutland Institute for Ethics, directed by Dr. Daniel Wueste. Dr. Stephen Satris, who served as CAI’s interim director, facilitated the reorganization and assisted in the hiring of a new director, Dr. Teresa “Teddi” Fishman.